In short, if you use a supported system:
pip install --upgrade pip # upgrade pip to at least 20.3 pip install psycopg[binary]
and you should be ready to start. Read further for alternative ways to install.
The Psycopg version documented here has official and tested support for:
Python: from version 3.7 to 3.10
Python 3.6 supported before Psycopg 3.1
PostgreSQL: from version 10 to 14
OS: Linux, macOS, Windows
The tests to verify the supported systems run in Github workflows: anything that is not tested there is not officially supported. This includes:
Unofficial Python distributions such as Conda;
Alternative PostgreSQL implementation;
macOS hardware and releases not available on Github workflows.
If you use an unsupported system things may work (because, for instance, the database may use the same wire protocol as PostgreSQL) but we cannot guarantee the correct working or a smooth ride.
The quickest way to start developing with Psycopg 3 is to install the binary packages by running:
pip install psycopg[binary]
This will install a self-contained package with all the libraries needed.
You will need pip 20.3 at least: please run
pip install --upgrade pip
to update it beforehand.
The above package should work in most situations. It will not work in some cases though.
At the time of writing we don’t distribute binary packages for Apple M1 (ARM) processors.
Did Psycopg 3 install ok? Great! You can now move on to the basic module usage to learn how it works.
Keep on reading if the above method didn’t work and you need a different way to install Psycopg 3.
For further information about the differences between the packages see pq module implementations.
A “Local installation” results in a performing and maintainable library. The
library will include the speed-up C module and will be linked to the system
libssl…) so that system upgrade of libraries will
upgrade the libraries used by Psycopg 3 too. This is the preferred way to
install Psycopg for a production site.
In order to perform a local installation you need some prerequisites:
a C compiler,
Python development headers (e.g. the
PostgreSQL client development headers (e.g. the
The pg_config program available in the
You must be able to troubleshoot an extension build, for instance you must be able to read your compiler’s error message. If you are not, please don’t try this and follow the binary installation instead.
If your build prerequisites are in place you can run:
pip install psycopg[c]
Pure Python installation¶
If you simply install:
pip install psycopg
[binary] extras you will obtain a pure Python
implementation. This is particularly handy to debug and hack, but it still
requires the system libpq to operate (which will be imported dynamically via
In order to use the pure Python installation you will need the
installed in the system: for instance on Debian system you will probably
sudo apt install libpq5
libpq is the client library used by psql, the
PostgreSQL command line client, to connect to the database. On most
systems, installing psql will install the
libpq too as a
If you are not able to fulfill this requirement please follow the binary installation.
Installing the connection pool¶
The Psycopg connection pools are distributed in a
separate package from the
psycopg package itself, in order to allow a
different release cycle.
In order to use the pool you must install the
pool extra, using
install psycopg[pool], or install the
psycopg_pool package separately,
which would allow to specify the release to install more precisely.
If you need to specify your project dependencies (for instance in a
you should probably specify one of the following:
If your project is a library, add a dependency on
psycopg. This will make sure that your library will have the
psycopgpackage with the right interface and leaves the possibility of choosing a specific implementation to the end user of your library.
If your project if a final application (e.g. a service running on a server) you can require a specific implementation, for instance
psycopg[c], after you have made sure that the prerequisites are met (e.g. the depending libraries and tools are installed in the host machine).
In both cases you can specify which version of Psycopg to use using requirement specifiers.
If you want to make sure that a specific implementation is used you can
PSYCOPG_IMPL environment variable: importing the library
will fail if the implementation specified is not available. See pq module implementations.